Primary intracerebral hemorrhage in Izumo City, Japan: incidence rates and outcome in relation to the site of hemorrhage

Neurosurgery. 2003 Dec;53(6):1283-97; discussion 1297-8. doi: 10.1227/01.neu.0000093825.04365.f3.


Objective: The aim of this community-based study was to investigate the incidence rates and outcome of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in relation to the site of hemorrhage.

Methods: The subjects were 350 patients with primary first-ever ICH who were treated during the 8-year period 1991 to 1998 in Izumo City, Japan.

Results: The crude and age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates for all types of ICH were 52 and 47 per 100,000 population, respectively, for all ages. The most common site of ICH was the putamen (120 patients, 34%), followed by the thalamus (115, 33%), lobar areas (53, 15%), brainstem (30, 9%), cerebellum (25, 7%), and caudate nucleus (7, 2%). The crude and age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence rates per 100,000 population were 18 and 16 for putaminal, 17 and 15 for thalamic, 8 and 7 for lobar, 4 and 3 for cerebellar, 4 and 4 for brainstem, and 1 and 1 for caudate hemorrhages, respectively. The Glasgow Coma Scale scores on admission were best in patients with cerebellar hemorrhage and worst in those with brainstem hemorrhage. Surgery was performed for 34% of putaminal, 9% of thalamic, 14% of caudate, 21% of lobar, and 32% of cerebellar hemorrhages but not for brainstem hemorrhages. The 30-day case fatality rate was 11% for putaminal, 9% for thalamic, 14% for caudate, 11% for lobar, 0% for cerebellar, and 53% for brainstem hemorrhages. When patients with ICH were analyzed as a whole, the overall survival rates at 30 days, 3 months, and 3 years were 87, 83, and 73%, respectively. Both the short-term and long-term outcomes after ICH were directly related to the site of hemorrhage and the severity of bleeding, which was assessed by the hematoma volume and Glasgow Coma Scale score. Overall, 190 (54%) of 350 patients had a favorable outcome, and 55 (16%) had died at discharge.

Conclusion: Marked differences were observed in the incidence rates and outcome of primary ICH in relation to the site of hemorrhage. The differences in outcome were primarily a result of differences in the severity of bleeding for each ICH subtype.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Brain Stem
  • Caudate Nucleus
  • Cerebellum
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / epidemiology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Putamen
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Survival Rate
  • Thalamus
  • Treatment Outcome