Purpose: The treatment of children with posterior urethral valve (PUV) and end-stage renal disease can be challenging. Some series have had poor outcomes after renal transplantation with an increased risk of graft dysfunction and urinary tract infections. We present our experience with a pediatric population and compare it to all the other pediatric renal transplants done at our institution.
Materials and methods: We identified 10 patients with PUV who underwent a total of 13 renal transplants between 1990 and 2000. The comparison group included 120 transplants done in 95 patients during the same period. Cumulative allograft survival and function were recorded.
Results: Overall patient survival in the PUV group was 100%. Mean age at transplant in the PUV group was 10.0 years and mean followup was 3.9 years. Six patients underwent high proximal urinary tract diversion, while the remainder had primary transurethral valve ablation. Three patients had bladder augmentation before transplantation. Cumulative allograft survival in the PUV group at 1 and 5 years was 85% and 64%, respectively. Of the 10 patients 9 currently have functioning living related donor transplants. One patient lost 3 cadaveric donor transplants to chronic rejection. No patients lost grafts due to infection or bladder dysfunction. Mean serum creatinine of the functioning grafts was 1.1 mg/dl.
Conclusions: Renal transplantation can be performed safely and effectively in patients with PUV, including those who have undergone previous proximal urinary tract diversion. Preoperative bladder management and continued monitoring of bladder and kidney function postoperatively are paramount in the preservation of allograft function.