Bronchodilators represent one of the most important therapeutic weapons for the treatment of airway obstructive diseases and the inhaled route of administration is very often employed due to the greater drug availability and reduced magnitude of side effects. During acute exhacerbations, it is not unfrequent that the elastic and resistive loads imposed on the ventilatory pump overcome the force sustainable by the respiratory muscles and the patient requires ventilatory assistance, in order to relieve fatigue and to optimize alveolar gas exchange. During these episodes, inhaled bronchodilators, far from being discontinued, sometime must be administered during mechanical ventilation, that, in hypercapnic ventilatory failure can be frequently applied noninvasively with a good rate of success. While in the current literature there are a lot of data about inhaled drug administration during invasive mechanical ventilation, very few data are available on the topic of aerosol therapy during noninvasive mechanical ventilation. With the present paper we want to analyze the rationale, the feasibility and the current data dealing with the administration of inhaled drugs during noninvasive mechanical ventilation.