Suboptimal timing of reproduction in Lobelia inflata may be a conservative bet-hedging strategy

J Evol Biol. 2003 Mar;16(2):233-43. doi: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2003.00530.x.


Age and size at reproduction are important components of fitness, and are variable both within and among angiosperm species. The fitness consequences of such life-history variation are most readily studied in organisms that reproduce only once in their lifetime. The timing of the onset of reproduction (bolting) in the monocarpic perennial, Lobelia inflata, occurs over a range of dates within a season, and may be postponed to a later year. Empirical relationships among life-history traits, derived from over 950 wild-growing and experimentally manipulated plants in the field, are used to model an optimal changing size threshold (norm of reaction) for bolting over the growing season. Comparisons are made between observed and expected norms of reaction governing bolting. An apparently suboptimal bolting schedule that precludes bolting beyond an early (conservative) date is observed, and is found to be qualitatively consistent with conservative bet hedging under unpredictable season lengths. On this basis we propose the schedule of bolting as a plausible example of a conservative bet-hedging strategy. The results underscore the critical need for long-term studies of fluctuating selection to distinguish suboptimality from bet hedging.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Biological / physiology*
  • Lobelia / physiology*
  • Models, Biological*
  • Reproduction / physiology
  • Selection, Genetic*
  • Time Factors