Effect of UV screens and preservatives on vitellogenin and choriogenin production in male medaka (Oryzias latipes)

Toxicology. 2003 Dec 15;194(1-2):43-50. doi: 10.1016/s0300-483x(03)00340-8.


Ultra violet (UV) screens and preservatives are widely and increasingly used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the present study, we examined the estrogenicity of 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor (4-MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), and propyl paraben (n-propyl-p-hydroxy-benzoate; PP), among UV screens and preservatives, using male medaka (Oryzias latipes), in regard to production of vitellogenin (VTG) and choriogenin (CHG) which are known to be estrogen-responsive gene products. First, using a VTG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system, we determined the increase in VTG plasma concentration in medaka due to exposure to 4-MBC, OMC, and PP, and compared this concentration to the non-treated control. Next, we found increases in mRNA expression levels of VTG subtypes VTG-1 and VTG-2, and CHG subtypes CHG-L and CHG-H, in liver due to exposure to 4-MBC, OMC, and PP compared to the non-treated control. In addition, we also found increased mRNA expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, among sex hormone receptors in the liver, due to exposure to 4-MBC, OMC, and PP compared to the non-treated control. In this study, we showed that 4-MBC, OMC, and PP have estrogenic activity in fish.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Camphor / analogs & derivatives*
  • Camphor / toxicity
  • Cinnamates / toxicity
  • Egg Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Egg Proteins / blood
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Fish Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Fish Proteins / blood
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Oryzias / blood
  • Oryzias / metabolism*
  • Parabens / toxicity
  • Protein Precursors / biosynthesis*
  • Protein Precursors / blood
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sunscreening Agents / toxicity*
  • Vitellogenins / biosynthesis*
  • Vitellogenins / blood


  • Cinnamates
  • Egg Proteins
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Fish Proteins
  • L-SF protein, Oryzias latipes
  • Parabens
  • Protein Precursors
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Sunscreening Agents
  • Vitellogenins
  • choriogenin H
  • octylmethoxycinnamate
  • Camphor
  • enzacamene
  • propylparaben