Objectives: Small dense LDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles with small size and high density, is regarded as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes mellitus is one of the conditions accompanied by increased small dense LDL. We analyzed LDL subclass in type 2 diabetics and normal controls with LipoPrint LDL System to investigate the LDL heterogeneity in diabetics and factors affecting it.
Design and methods: We selected 40 normal controls and 40 type 2 diabetics with fasting blood glucose level over 7.0 mmol/L and HbA1c level over 7%. LDL subclass was determined with LipoPrint LDL System. LipoPrint LDL System fractionates LDL into seven parts (LDL1-7) by size and LDL3 to LDL7 are defined as small-sized LDL. In addition we estimated 'the percent of small-sized LDL over whole LDL' and defined it as 'small-sized LDL proportion'.
Results: Mean small-sized LDL proportion was significantly higher in diabetics (23.4%) than in controls (11.8%) (p<0.001) and small-sized LDL proportion showed positive correlation with blood levels of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and oxidized LDL and negative correlation with HDL cholesterol level in univariate analysis (p<0.001). Of these parameters, triglyceride, HbA1c, oxidized LDL were statistically significant variables contributing to the small-sized LDL proportion in stepwise multiple regression analysis.
Conclusions: We analyzed small-sized LDL proportion in type 2 diabetics and found that it was significantly increased in diabetics than control subjects and it was independently correlated with triglyceride, HbA1c, oxidized LDL in descending order, which are reflecting lipid metabolism, glycation, and oxidative stress, respectively.