In the present study, we describe the human and mouse RFP2 gene structure, multiple RFP2 mRNA isoforms in the two species that have different 5' UTRs and a human-specific antisense transcript RFP2OS. Since the human RFP2 5' UTR is not conserved in mouse, these findings might indicate a different regulation of RFP2 in the two species. The predicted human and mouse RFP2 proteins are shown to contain a tripartite RING finger-B-box-coiled-coil domain (RBCC), also known as a TRIM domain, and therefore belong to a subgroup of RING finger proteins that are often involved in developmental and tumorigenic processes. Because homozygous deletions of chromosomal region 13q14.3 are found in a number of malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM), we suggest that RFP2 might be involved in tumor development. This study provides necessary information for evaluation of the role of RFP2 in malignant transformation and other biological processes.