Interaction of RANTES with its membrane ligands or receptors transduces multiple intracellular signals. Whether RANTES uses proteoglycans (PGs) belonging to the syndecan family to attach to primary cells expressing RANTES G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) was investigated. We demonstrate that RANTES specifically binds to high and low affinity binding sites on human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). We show by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that RANTES is associated on these cells with syndecan-1 and syndecan-4, but neither with syndecan-2 nor with betaglycan, in addition to CD44 and its GPCRs, CCR5 and CCR1. Glycosaminidases pre-treatment of the monocyte derived-macrophages strongly decreases the binding of RANTES to syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 and also to CCR5, and abolishes RANTES binding to CD44. This suggests that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are involved in RANTES binding to the PGs and that such bindings facilitate the subsequent interaction of RANTES with CCR5, on the MDM, characterized by low membrane expression of CCR5. The role of these interactions in the pathophysiology of RANTES deserves further study.