Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana

Health Place. 2004 Mar;10(1):85-103. doi: 10.1016/s1353-8292(03)00050-9.


This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument used. The survey has established that income, quality of water, hours spent fetching water during scarcity and age are the main factors influencing women's health in the metropolis during water scarcity. In both the core and periphery, the water-related problem influencing health is hours spent fetching water during scarcity. An empirical model on water needs and women's health has emerged from the survey. Recommendations have been made on strategies to ensure regular volume of surface water, effective management of scarce water resources with the participation of women, and ensuring gender equity in domestic services.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Data Collection
  • Female
  • Ghana
  • Health Services Needs and Demand*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Population Growth
  • Poverty
  • Random Allocation
  • Urban Health*
  • Water Supply*
  • Women's Health*