Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common causes of vaginitis, and its incidence has increased markedly during the past three decades. The widespread overuse of antibiotics has been suggested as one of the major factors contributing to the increasing incidence of VVC. However, evidence supporting this association has been limited because few studies with rigorous scientific methodology have been conducted. Moreover, existing data regarding the risk for developing VVC after antibiotic use are conflicting. This review examines the available information in the literature regarding antibiotic-associated VVC, its incidence, and its potential mechanisms. Implications for clinical practice and research are also discussed.