We report results from the first part of an ongoing longitudinal study aimed at identifying the relative contributions of demographic, seizure, and family variables in the prediction of behavior problems in children with epilepsy. We studied 127 children with epilepsy aged 8-12 years and their mothers. Self-report questionnaires, interviews, and medical records were data sources. Backward and forward stepwise elimination procedures using multiple regression indicated five variables that contributed significantly to prediction of behavior problems: female gender, family stress, family mastery, extended family social support, and seizure frequency. These factors accounted for 29% (p < 0.001) of the variation in behavioral problems. Findings suggest that family variables are important correlates of behavior problems and should be considered in clinical management of children with epilepsy.