The hemorrhagic syndrome caused by accidents with caterpillars of the genus Lonomia has been the focus of several clinical and biochemical studies, since its venom is composed of many active principles that interfere with the hemostatic system. Whereas a fibrinolytic agent has been characterized in the venom of Lonomia achelous, in Lonomia obliqua, only a prothrombin activator activity has been reported so far, even though both species cause similar bleeding disorders, characterized by hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and acute renal failure. Considering the possibility that the hemorrhagic syndrome resulting from envenoming by L. obliqua may be due to fibrinolytic and procoagulant activities acting together, we decided to investigate the effects of bristle extract (BE) of this species upon blood coagulation and fibrin(ogen)olysis. This study shows that besides a procoagulant activity related to the activation of prothrombin, the venom contains at least one fibrin(ogen)olytic activity, as shown by fibrinolysis in a fibrin (F) plate assay, by interference in thrombin-catalyzed fibrinocoagulation, and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile of fibrin and fibrinogen (Fg) degradation. Considering that a recombinant prothrombin activator from L. obliqua has been suggested in other studies to be used as an anti-thrombotic agent, it is important in the first place to better characterize the different active principles of this venom.