Most of the mutagenic and carcinogenic agents induce chromosome aberrations in vivo and in vitro. Conventional solid staining (such as Giemsa) has been employed to evaluate the frequencies and types of spontaneous and induced chromosomal aberrations. Recently, molecular cytogenetic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome specific or chromosome region-specific DNA libraries have become available, which have increased the resolution of the detection of aberrations. This has lead to a better understanding on the mechanisms of formation of chromosome aberrations, especially following treatment with ionizing radiation. The present paper reviews briefly the results obtained using FISH technique both from basic and applied studies.