Malonate: a versatile cryoprotectant and stabilizing solution for salt-grown macromolecular crystals

Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Dec;59(Pt 12):2356-8. doi: 10.1107/s0907444903021784. Epub 2003 Nov 27.


Collection of quality data on high-energy synchrotron sources requires the selection of a cryoprotectant that allows protein crystals to be cryocooled without damage to the crystal and with suppression of ice formation. The use of sodium malonate as a versatile cryoprotectant for salt-grown protein crystals is presented here. In addition to its useful cryoprotectant properties, sodium malonate can also function as a versatile stabilizing solution that allows the manipulation, derivatization and ligand soaking of crystals grown from salt that may not be possible in the crystal mother liquor.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / isolation & purification
  • Cryoprotective Agents / chemistry*
  • Crystallization / methods*
  • Crystallography, X-Ray / methods
  • Enzymes / chemistry
  • Enzymes / isolation & purification
  • Malonates / chemistry*
  • Models, Molecular


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Cryoprotective Agents
  • Enzymes
  • Malonates
  • malonic acid