Human chitotriosidase (Chit) is a member of the chitinase family and it is synthesized by activated macrophages. Recently, a genetic polymorphism was found to be responsible for the common deficiency in Chit activity, frequently encountered in different populations. We analyzed the Chit gene in some ethnic groups from the Mediterranean and African areas, to evaluate whether the Chit gene polymorphism correlates with the changes in environmental features and the disappearance of parasitic diseases. We found a heterozygote frequency for the duplication of 24 bp in exon 10 of 44% in Sicily and 32.71% in Sardinia, whereas those homozygous Chit deficient were 5.45 and 3.73%, respectively. In contrast, in Benin and Burkina Faso, both mesoendemic regions for Plasmodium falciparum malaria and other infections due to intestinal parasites, a low incidence of Chit mutation was found (heterozygous 0 and 2%, respectively) and no subject was homozygous for Chit deficiency. Our results provide evidence of the fact that the low frequency or the absence of mutant Chit gene may represent a protective factor in the population still living in disadvantaged environmental conditions. The present study suggests that the disappearance of parasitic diseases and the improved environmental conditions may have ensued the occurrence of a high percentage of 24-bp mutation in Sicily, in Sardinia and in other Mediterranean countries, whereas in the sub-Saharan regions (Benin and Burkina Faso), the widespread parasitic diseases and the poor social status have contributed to maintenance of the wild-type Chit gene.