We have performed oligonucleotide array analysis on various murine lung tissues [normal lungs, lung adenomas, and lung adenocarcinomas (ACs)] using Affymetrix U74Av2 GeneChips to examine the complex genetic changes occurring during lung carcinogenesis. Analysis yielded 20 novel genes differentially expressed in both lung adenomas and ACs versus normal lungs, including the tumor suppressor APC2 and the oncogene Ros 1. In addition, 50 genes were found to be differentially expressed in lung adenomas versus lung ACs, including the differentiation factor Hox C6, the oncogene Ets 2, and the Ras nuclear transport factor, nuclear transport factor 2. To understand the potential relationship between genes expressed in murine lung tumors and its relationship to altered gene expression observed during embryogenesis and postnatal development, tissues from embryonic lungs and from lungs of mice up to 4 weeks following birth were examined using Affymetrix U74Av2 GeneChips. From this analysis, approximately 1300 genes were determined to exhibit differential expression in fetal lung versus postnatal lung. When we compared lung adenomas, lung ACs, and normal lung parenchyma, 24 developmentally regulated genes were found aberrantly expressed in lung tumors; these included the cell cycle control factor CDC5, the cellular differentiation factor TEA domain 4, and the proapoptotic factor BNIP 2. Finally, we compared the murine lung tumor gene expression data to the expression of genes in human lung cancer, in order to assess the relevance of murine lung cancer models in the study of human AC formation. When the 17 human lung ACs and six human lung large cell carcinomas were examined, it was found that 13 of the 17 human lung ACs clustered tightly together in a pattern that was different from the remaining four human lung ACs and six large cell carcinomas, which exhibited a different pattern. Interestingly, the mouse lung adenomas appeared similar to 13 clustered ACs, while mouse lung ACs appeared more similar in pattern to the group consisting of four ACs and six large-cell carcinomas (LCCs). Nevertheless, when compared with the combined human ACs, 39 genes with similar expression changes in murine lung tumors and human ACs/LCCs were identified, such as the oncogene-related BCL7B, the cell cycle regulator CDK4, and the proapoptotic Endophilin B1. Overall, we have determined, for the first time, the expression profiles during murine lung tumor progression and have established, at the molecular level, an association between murine lung tumorigenesis and lung development. We have also attempted to compare the expression profiles found in mouse lung cancers and those in human lung ACs.