The poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been associated with recurrence and metastasis. Recently, we established a pair of HCC cell lines from a primary (H2-P) and its matched metastatic (H2-M) HCC tumors. A high density of cDNA microarray with 9184 human cDNA was used to identify the differentially expressed genes between H2-P and H2-M. Comparing with H2-P, eight upregulated and six downregulated genes were detected in H2-M. One interesting finding is the overexpression of Vimentin (VIM), a well-defined intermediate filament, which has been linked to a more aggressive status in various tumors. The correlation of overexpression of VIM and HCC metastasis was studied by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray with 200 primary HCCs and 60 pairs of primary and matched metastatic HCC samples. Tissue microarray demonstrated that the overexpression of VIM was significantly associated with HCC metastasis (P<0.01). This finding strongly suggests that the overexpression of VIM may play an important role in the metastasis of HCC.