Characterization of nearly 1,000 cultivated potato accessions with simple sequence repeats (SSRs; also referred to as microsatellites) has allowed the identification of a reference set of SSR markers for accurate and efficient genotyping. In addition, 31 SSRs are reported here for a potato genetic map, including new map locations for 24 of them. A first criterion for this proposed reference set was ubiquity of the SSRs in the eight landrace cultivar groups of the potato, Solanum tuberosum. All SSRs tested in the present study displayed the same allele phenotypes and allele size range in the diverse germplasm set as in the advanced potato cultivar germplasm in which they were originally discovered. Thirteen of 13 SSR products from all cultivar groups are shown to cross-hybridize with the corresponding SSR product of the source cultivar to ascertain sequence homology. Other important SSR selection criteria are quality of amplification products, locus complexity, polymorphic index content, and well-dispersed location on a potato genetic map. Screening of 156 SSRs allowed the identification of a highly informative and user-friendly set comprising 18 SSR markers for use in characterization of potato genetic resources. In addition, we have identified true- and pseudo-multiplexing SSRs for even greater efficiency.