[Ventilation in special situations. Mechanical ventilation in bronchiolitis]

An Pediatr (Barc). 2003 Oct;59(4):363-6. doi: 10.1016/s1695-4033(03)78195-8.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Bronchiolitis is a prevalent viral disease in infants. Many of these infants require hospital admission and mechanical ventilation due to respiratory failure or apnea. The clinical and pathophysiological spectrum of this disease can range from two extremes, obstructive and restrictive disease, on which the indication for mechanical ventilation and the modality used should be based. Non-invasive ventilation is especially indicated in both obstructive and hypoxemic restrictive patterns and a pressure-controlled modality is recommended. In obstructive patterns, air trapping must be monitored, while in restrictive patterns the addition of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is indicated. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation is indicated in restrictive patterns with sever hypoxemia despite conventional ventilatory support or in cases of significant air leak syndromes. In all cases, a permissive hypercapnia strategy is recommended to prevent barotrauma. Sedation and muscle relaxation should be considered to facilitate adaptation to the ventilator and to try to limit the risks of air trapping, air leak, and barotrauma.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Bronchiolitis / therapy*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Respiration, Artificial* / methods