Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis in early breast cancer--relevance to prognosis

Acta Oncol. 2002;41(7-8):695-703.


The aim of this study was to investigate whether Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis add new knowledge regarding prediction of prognosis in 455 consecutive early breast carcinomas, both node-positive (52%) and node-negative (48%). Median follow-up was 101 months. Intense vascularization indicated poor disease-specific (p = 0.003) and overall (p = 0.004) survival. In node-negative patients, Chalkley counts were not associated with prognosis, whereas in node-positive patients, high Chalkley scores indicated poor disease-specific (p = 0.0006) and overall (p = 0.0008) survival. A multivariate analysis showed that positive lymph nodes, high histopathological grades, and negative oestrogen receptors were independent markers of cancer-related death. A high histopathological grade was associated with cancer-related death in node-negative patients, whereas in node-positive patients, many lymph nodes, high malignancy grade, negative oestrogen receptor, and increasing Chalkley counts (both tertiles and continuous) were independent markers of disease-specific death. Thus, in a univariate analysis it was found that high Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis indicated a poor prognosis, but high Chalkley estimates were independent prognostic markers only in node-positive patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Breast Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / mortality
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology*
  • Prognosis
  • Survival Rate