Gall-inducing aphids are host specific in the gall stage. Most species alternate between trees (the primary host), where the gall is induced, and shrubs and grasses (secondary hosts). Parthenogenesis during most of their life cycle is interrupted by a single stage of sexual reproduction on the primary host. Apart from these general characteristics, galling aphids present some of the most complex and diverse life histories in the insect world. In this article I review the specialized characteristics of galling aphids, as well as their complex and diverse life histories, as reported in the past 20 years.