Perspectives in the study of thyroid hormone action on brain development and function

Thyroid. 2003 Nov;13(11):1005-12. doi: 10.1089/105072503770867174.


The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date report on the molecular and physiologic processes involved in the role of thyroid hormone as an epigenetic factor in brain maturation. We summarize the available data on the control of brain gene expression by thyroid hormone, the correlation between gene expression and physiologic effects, and the likely mechanisms of action of thyroid hormone on brain gene expression. In addition we propose a role for unliganded thyroid hormone receptors in the pathogenesis of hypothyroidism. Finally, we review recent data indicating that thyroid hormone receptors have an impact on behavior.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / growth & development
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / genetics
  • Humans
  • Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Thyroid Hormones / physiology*
  • Triiodothyronine / metabolism


  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Iodide Peroxidase