Exercise training may modulate protein content and enzyme activities in skeletal muscle. However, it is not known whether atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is affected by training. Thus, we investigated aPKC, extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) activities and expression in skeletal muscle from untrained and endurance-trained subjects at rest and after 20min of cycle exercise (80% of VO(2peak)). Activities of aPKC (P<0.05) and ERK 1/2 (P=0.06), but not phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, were higher in trained than in sedentary subjects at rest. Exercise increased the activities of ERK 1/2 (P<0.01) and aPKC (P<0.05) and the phosphorylation (Thr180/Tyr182) of P38 MAPK (P<0.01) similarly in muscle from trained and sedentary subjects. Protein expression of the kinases was similar in trained and sedentary muscle. The increased aPKC activity in exercise-trained subjects could be important in explaining the enhanced insulin action in these individuals.