GPR54 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that displays a high percentage of identity in the transmembrane domains with the galanin receptors. The ligand for GPR54 has been identified as a peptide derived from the KiSS-1 gene. KiSS-1 has been shown to have anti-metastatic effects, suggesting that KiSS-1 or its receptor represents a potential therapeutic target. To further our understanding of the physiological function of this receptor, we have generated a mutant mouse line with a targeted disruption of the GPR54 receptor (GPR54 -/-). The analysis of the GPR54 mutant mice revealed developmental abnormalities of both male and female genitalia and histopathological changes in tissues which normally contain sexually dimorphic features. These data suggest a role for GPR54/KiSS-1 in normal sexual development, and indicate that study of the GPR54 mutant mice may provide valuable insights into human reproductive syndromes.