Racial/ethnic differences in influenza vaccination coverage in high-risk adults

Am J Public Health. 2003 Dec;93(12):2074-8. doi: 10.2105/ajph.93.12.2074.


Objectives: This study identified racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination in high-risk adults.

Methods: We analyzed data on influenza vaccination in 7655 adults with high-risk conditions, using data from the 1999 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We stratified data by age and used multiple logistic regression to adjust for gender, education, income, employment, and health care access.

Results: After control for covariates, White patients with diabetes, chronic heart conditions, and cancer had a higher prevalence of influenza vaccination than did Black patients with the same conditions. Similarly, White patients with 2 or more high-risk conditions were more likely to receive the influenza vaccine than Black patients with the same conditions.

Conclusions: Significant racial/ethnic differences exist in influenza vaccination of high-risk individuals, and missed vaccination opportunities seem to contribute to the less-than-optimal influenza vaccination coverage in the United States.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asthma / ethnology
  • Black or African American / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / ethnology
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Heart Diseases / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs / statistics & numerical data*
  • Immunization Programs / supply & distribution
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / supply & distribution
  • Influenza, Human / ethnology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / ethnology
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / ethnology
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States
  • White People / statistics & numerical data*


  • Influenza Vaccines