Background: Phaeohyphomycosis refers to infections caused by phaeoid fungi that can have an aggressive course in normal hosts. Involvement of the central nervous system may occur with a generally poor outcome. Clinical report and literature review: We report a case of Bipolaris sp. brain abscess in an immunologically competent host. We also review all previous cases of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in normal hosts reported in the literature to date.
Conclusions: Central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis remains an unusual disease; however, its incidence has been increasing in recent years. The prognosis of this condition is still poor, despite medical and surgical interventions. Aggressive diagnostic approaches and careful interpretation of cultures might modify the natural history of this disease.