An unusual catalase-positive, Gram-positive, coccus-shaped bacterium that originated from a human blood specimen was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Cell-wall murein and lipid composition analyses indicated that the unknown isolate was a member of the genus Luteococcus. The results of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were consistent with chemotaxonomic findings and showed that the unidentified bacterium represents a hitherto unknown sublineage within the genus Luteococcus that is closely related to, but distinct from, Luteococcus japonicus. On the basis of both phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium from human blood should be classified as Luteococcus sanguinis sp. nov., with the type strain CCUG 33897(T) (=CIP 107216(T)).