The transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are six transmembrane-containing subunits that combine to form cation-selective ion channels. TRP channels are present in yeast, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mammals. They are widely distributed and sense local changes in stimuli ranging from light to temperature and osmolarity. Mammals contain at least 22 distinct genes encoding these ion channels. This summary article presents an overview of the molecular relationships among the TRP channels and a standard nomenclature for them, which is derived from the IUPHAR Compendium of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels. The complete Compendium, including data tables for each member of the TRP channel family, can be found at http://www.iuphar-db.org/iuphar-ic/.