The objective of this report was to characterize 20-year changes in proportion of calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculi and struvite calculi in dogs, and associations with breed, age, and sex. In this retrospective study, results of analysis of urinary calculi from dogs were reviewed for specimens received between July 1, 1981, and December 31, 2001. Breed, sex, age, year of submission of the specimen, and mineral type(s) were analyzed statistically. CaOx or Struvite or both were contained in 18,966 of 20,884 (91%) specimens. For both sexes, a 20-year statistically significant increase was observed in the proportion of calculus specimens that contained CaOx. The increase in this proportion was greater in females (1% to 31%) than in males (18% to 82%). From 1998 to 2001, when proportions may have plateaued, the odds of specimens containing CaOx were markedly higher in 18 breeds, markedly lower in 5 breeds, and not significantly different in 13 breeds compared with crossbreds. For both sexes, a 20-year statistically significant decrease was observed in the proportion of calculus specimens that contained struvite. This decrease in proportion was greater for males (79-16%) than for females (97-68%). From 1998 to 2001, when proportions plateaued, the odds of calculi containing struvite were markedly lower in 20 breeds, markedly higher in 1 breed, and not significantly different in 15 breeds when compared with crossbreds. Breed, age, and sex were associated statistically with CaOx or struvite urolithiasis. In conclusion, there appears to have been a long-term increase in the proportion of specimens of canine urinary calculi that contain CaOx as well as a long-term decrease in the proportion of specimens of calculi that contain struvite for both male and female dogs. The rate of change appeared to begin leveling off in the period 1998 to 2001. The recent proportion of dogs with either CaOx- or struvite-associated urolithiasis may depend on breed, age, and sex, and on interactions among these 3 factors.