International consensus statement on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs): clinical implications and treatment practice suggestions

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004 Jan;14(1):11-28. doi: 10.1016/s0924-977x(03)00045-2.


Researchers and clinicians worldwide share concerns that many youngsters with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) do not receive appropriate treatment despite availability of effective therapies. At the request of Johnson and Johnson (sponsor), 11 international experts in child and adolescent psychiatry were selected by Professor Stan Kutcher (chair) to address these concerns. This paper describes the experts' consensus conclusions, including treatment practice suggestions for physicians involved in the early treatment of youngsters with ADHD (or hyperkinetic disorder, in countries preferring this classification) and/or DBDs internationally: suggested first-line treatment for ADHD without comorbidity is psychostimulant medication aided by psychosocial intervention. For ADHD with comorbid conduct disorder (CD), psychosocial intervention combined with pharmacotherapy is suggested. For primary CD, suggested first-line treatment is psychosocial intervention, with pharmacotherapy considered as an 'add-on' when aggression/impulsivity is marked and persistent. Pharmacotherapy requires careful titration; full-day coverage is the suggested goal. Regular long-term follow-up is recommended.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / complications
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / psychology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / therapy*
  • Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders / complications
  • Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders / psychology
  • Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders / therapy*
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Internationality


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants