A study of environmental tobacco smoke in South Australian pubs, clubs and cafes

Int J Environ Health Res. 2004 Feb;14(1):3-11. doi: 10.1080/09603120310001633903.


Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in hotels and clubs is of community concern and may lead to a variety of adverse health outcomes for workers and patrons. This study sought to measure ETS in both smoking and non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in South Australia and to assess the effectiveness of ETS control measures. Seven hotels, clubs and cafes were investigated and the concentrations of airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM(10)) were measured as markers of ETS exposure during normal to busy periods. Overall average concentrations were higher in smoking areas (nicotine = 15 microg/m(3) and PM(10) = 255microg/m(3)) compared with non-smoking dining areas (nicotine = 7 microg/m(3) and PM(10) = 192 microg/m(3)). The data demonstrate an approximate two-fold reduction of ETS within non-smoking areas and suggest that mechanical ventilation is only partially effective in preventing propagation of ETS throughout premises. Risk models suggest that ETS exposures in non-smoking areas may still represent an appreciable health risk. It is recommended that smoking be totally banned in enclosed publicly accessible areas.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis*
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Humans
  • Nicotine / analysis
  • Particle Size
  • Restaurants*
  • Smoking
  • South Australia
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / analysis*
  • Ventilation


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Nicotine