The Thai government began HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) in all provinces in 1992. We evaluated HIV incidence after participants utilized VCT and its effect on risk behaviours among northern Thai adults aged 19-35 years. A total of 924 men and 1,327 women volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects were counseled, interviewed (socio-demographic, HIV risk behaviour, and HIV testing history), and tested for HIV infection at baseline and at 6 months follow-up. All participants were provided group pre-test counselling; HIV test results were provided in individual confidential post-test counselling. Overall, 329 of 391 men and 621 of 669 women who reported a prior HIV test before participating in our study reported negative results at the previous test. Of these, nine men and 13 women tested positive at baseline, giving incidence rates of 1.04 and 0.69 per 100 person years (PY), respectively. Recent risk behaviour was rare; as a result, the effects of VCT on risk behaviours among the study participants could not be determined. The HIV incidence after VCT among this study population is substantial. Studies to investigate factors associated with HIV incidence among VCT clients could provide insights for more effective HIV prevention.