The evolution of SMC proteins: phylogenetic analysis and structural implications

Mol Biol Evol. 2004 Feb;21(2):332-47. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msh023. Epub 2003 Dec 5.


The SMC proteins are found in nearly all living organisms examined, where they play crucial roles in mitotic chromosome dynamics, regulation of gene expression, and DNA repair. We have explored the phylogenetic relationships of SMC proteins from prokaryotes and eukaryotes, as well as their relationship to similar ABC ATPases, using maximum-likelihood analyses. We have also investigated the coevolution of different domains of eukaryotic SMC proteins and attempted to account for the evolutionary patterns we have observed in terms of available structural data. Based on our analyses, we propose that each of the six eukaryotic SMC subfamilies originated through a series of ancient gene duplication events, with the condensins evolving more rapidly than the cohesins. In addition, we show that the SMC5 and SMC6 subfamily members have evolved comparatively rapidly and suggest that these proteins may perform redundant functions in higher eukaryotes. Finally, we propose a possible structure for the SMC5/SMC6 heterodimer based on patterns of coevolution.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics
  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics*
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics*
  • Codon / genetics
  • DNA Damage / genetics
  • DNA Repair
  • Eukaryotic Cells
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Gene Duplication
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Mitosis / genetics
  • Phylogeny*
  • Prokaryotic Cells
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary / genetics


  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Codon
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases