Emerging, noninvasive surrogate markers of atherosclerosis

Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004 Jan;6(1):60-8. doi: 10.1007/s11883-004-0117-3.


Noninvasive surrogate markers of atherosclerosis allow the physician to identify subclinical disease before the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events, thereby limiting the need to perform invasive diagnostic procedures. Imaging modalities, such as carotid artery ultrasound, two-dimensional echocardiography, coronary artery calcium imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, ankle-brachial indices, brachial artery reactivity testing, and epicardial coronary flow reserve measurements, provide information that may improve the predictive value of a person's risk of developing clinically significant atherosclerotic disease. Newer imaging modalities have also emerged to bring insight into the pathophysiology and treatment of atherosclerosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arteriosclerosis / diagnosis*
  • Arteriosclerosis / prevention & control*
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Brachial Artery / physiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Carotid Arteries / pathology*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Coronary Circulation
  • Diagnostic Imaging*
  • Echocardiography
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Tunica Intima / pathology
  • Tunica Media / pathology


  • Biomarkers