Fifteen patients with right ventricular dysplasia were investigated by T1-weighted spin- and gradient-echo pulse sequences, using a protocol that enabled both a subjective analysis of myocardial signal intensity and a quantitative/qualitative analysis of right and left ventricular function. In 8 patients, 3 investigators independently recognized abnormally hyperintense areas in the anatomic sites usually affected by the disease. In 7 of these patients, these areas showed an overlap with a-dyskinetic areas imaged by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography. In 1 patient who underwent a cardiac transplant, MRI of the explanted heart showed an excellent correlation between the distribution of the lesions and the in vivo/in vitro features. The data were compared with those from an equivalent sample of patients affected by dilated cardiomyopathy. In the latter patients, no focal hyperintensities were attributed to any anatomic sites in the right ventricule, and no focal a-dyskinetic foci were observed. Furthermore, the 2 groups of patients were significantly different in regard to dimensional and functional quantitative parameters. The results suggest that MRI is useful in integrating echocardiographic data and can be helpful in diagnosing this disease in late stages.