A paramagnetic CEST agent for imaging glucose by MRI

J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Dec 17;125(50):15288-9. doi: 10.1021/ja038345f.


The europium(III) complex of a DOTA-tetraamide ligand (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N' ',N' ''-tetraacetic acids) containing two phenyl boronate pendent arms binds glucose reversibly with an association constant of 383 M-1 at pH 7. Glucose binding results in slowing of water exchange between a single Eu(III)-bound water molecule and bulk water, and this can be imaged by MRI using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging sequence. This metabolite-responsive paramagnetic CEST agent responds to changes in glucose over the physiologically important range (0-20 mM), and thus it offers the possibility of high-sensitivity MR imaging glucose in tissues using bulk water protons as antenna.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Boronic Acids / chemistry
  • Contrast Media / chemistry*
  • Europium / chemistry
  • Glucose / analysis*
  • Glucose / chemistry
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Organometallic Compounds / chemistry


  • Boronic Acids
  • Contrast Media
  • Organometallic Compounds
  • Europium
  • Glucose