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Review
, 67 (4), 491-502

Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their Natural Products

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Review

Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their Natural Products

Gary Strobel et al. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev.

Abstract

Endophytic microorganisms are to be found in virtually every plant on earth. These organisms reside in the living tissues of the host plant and do so in a variety of relationships, ranging from symbiotic to slightly pathogenic. Because of what appears to be their contribution to the host plant, the endophytes may produce a plethora of substances of potential use to modern medicine, agriculture, and industry. Novel antibiotics, antimycotics, immunosuppressants, and anticancer compounds are only a few examples of what has been found after the isolation, culture, purification, and characterization of some choice endophytes in the recent past. The potential prospects of finding new drugs that may be effective candidates for treating newly developing diseases in humans, plants, and animals are great.

Figures

FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.
Oocydin A, a chlorinated macrocyclic lactone from a strain of Serratia marcescens isolated from R. penicillata.
FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.
Cryptocandin A, an antifungal peptide obtained from the endophytic fungus C. quercina.
FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.
Cryptocin, a tetramic acid antifungal compound also found in C. quercina.
FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.
Ambuic acid, a highly functionalized cyclohexenone produced by a number of isolates of P. microspora found in rainforests around the world. This compound possesses antifungal activity. Ambuic acid has also served as a model to develop new solid-state NMR methods for the structural determination of organic substances (22, 24).
FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.
Jesterone, a cyclohexenone epoxide from P. jesteri that has antioomycete activity.
FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.
Paclitaxel, the world's first billion-dollar anticancer drug, is produced by many endophytic fungi. It, too, possesses outstanding antioomycete activity.
FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.
Isopestacin, an antioxidant produced by an endophytic P. microspora strain isolated from T. morobensis growing on the north coast of Papua New Guinea.
FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.
Pestacin is also produced by the same fungus as that in Fig. 7, and it, too, is an antioxidant.
FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.
Subglutinol A, an immunosuppressant, is produced by an endophytic F. subglutinans strain.

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