Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality in Western countries, and familial aggregation of PC is well known. Multiple PC susceptibility loci have been reported in Western countries, but attempts to confirm the loci in independent data sets have proven to be inconsistent. We performed a genomewide linkage analysis with 53 affected sib pairs to identify genetic loci related to PC in a Japanese population. Two linkage analyses, GENEHUNTER-PLUS and SIBPAL, were applied and detected nominal statistical significance of linkage to PC at chromosome 1p and 8p, which were reported as being loci for PC in Caucasians. The best evidence of linkage was detected near D8S550 on 8p23 (maximum Zlr=2.25, P=0.037), and the second-best evidence of linkage was observed near D1S2667 on 1p36 (maximum Zlr=2.24, P=0.034). This is the first genetic mapping of PC in Japanese, and the results suggest that susceptibilities to PC lie close to D8S550 on 8p23 and D1S2667 on 1p36.