The echinoid immune system and the phylogenetic occurrence of immune mechanisms in deuterostomes

Immunol Today. 1992 Sep;13(9):356-62. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(92)90172-4.


In this article, Courtney Smith and Eric Davidson reinterpret the published data on immune function in lower deuterostomes and primitive chordates. It leads them to a new model of immune system phylogeny in which MHC-directed T-cell responses are the last to evolve and are not derived from subchordate self-nonself recognition systems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation
  • Chordata, Nonvertebrate / immunology*
  • Echinodermata / immunology*
  • Fishes / immunology
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Models, Biological
  • Phylogeny*
  • Reproduction / immunology
  • Sea Urchins / immunology
  • Species Specificity
  • Transplantation, Homologous / immunology
  • Urochordata / immunology*