Effect of pramlintide on A1C and body weight in insulin-treated African Americans and Hispanics with type 2 diabetes: a pooled post hoc analysis

Metabolism. 2003 Dec;52(12):1638-42. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2003.06.003.


An unresolved problem in the management of type 2 diabetes is that improvement of glycemic control with insulin, insulin secretagogues, and insulin sensitizers is often accompanied by undesired weight gain. This problem is of particular concern in ethnic groups with a high propensity for diabetes and obesity, such as African Americans and Hispanics. Two 1-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes have shown that adjunctive therapy with pramlintide, an analog of the human beta-cell hormone amylin, reduces A(1C) with concomitant weight loss, rather than weight gain. To assess the effect of pramlintide in various ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes using insulin, we conducted a pooled post hoc analysis of the 2 trials, which included all Caucasian (n = 315), African American (n = 47), and Hispanic (n = 48) patients (age 57 years, A(1C) 9.1%, body mass index [BMI] 33 kg/m(2), mean values) who completed 52 weeks of treatment with either pramlintide (120 microg twice daily or 150 microg 3 times a day) or placebo. Primary endpoints included changes from baseline to week 52 in A(1C) and body weight. Collectively, pramlintide-treated patients achieved significant reductions from baseline in both A(1C) and body weight (placebo-corrected treatment effects at week 52: -0.5% and -2.6 kg, respectively, both P <.0001). The simultaneous reduction in A(1C) and body weight at week 52 was evident across all 3 ethnic groups and appeared to be most pronounced in African Americans (-0.7%, -4.1 kg), followed by Caucasians (-0.5%, -2.4 kg) and Hispanics (-0.3%, -2.3 kg). The glycemic improvement with pramlintide was not associated with an increased incidence of hypoglycemia over the entire study period (43% pramlintide v 40% placebo). Nausea, the most common adverse event associated with pramlintide treatment, was mostly mild and confined to the first 4 weeks of therapy (25% pramlintide v 16% placebo) with comparable patterns in the 3 ethnic groups. Thus, pending further experience, the combined improvement in glycemic and weight control with pramlintide treatment appears to be generalizable to a broad population of mixed ethnicity.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • African Americans
  • Aged
  • Amyloid / administration & dosage
  • Amyloid / therapeutic use*
  • Body Weight / drug effects*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism*
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Amyloid
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
  • pramlintide