Improved beta-elimination-based affinity purification strategy for enrichment of phosphopeptides

Anal Chem. 2003 Dec 15;75(24):6826-36. doi: 10.1021/ac034989u.


Alkaline-induced beta-elimination of phosphate from phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues followed by addition of an affinity tag has recently been pursued as a strategy for enriching phosphorylated species from complex mixtures. Here we report the use of an introduced thiol tag as the ligand for affinity purification via disulfide exchange with an activated thiol resin and the development of a protocol to improve the sensitivity considerably over previous reports (i.e., to subpicomole levels.) During our experiments, we observed a side reaction in which water was eliminated from unmodified serine residues. This side reaction resulted in the introduction of the affinity tag into unphosphorylated proteins, confounding attempts to specifically purify phosphoproteins from mixtures. Unchecked, this side reaction will also prevent application of the beta-elimination strategy to phosphopeptide samples where the phosphorylated species are minor components (i.e., most current phosphoproteomics applications). Quantitation of the side reaction products using three synthetic unphosphorylated peptides showed varying conversion efficiencies; at maximum, 1.7% of unphosphorylated peptide was converted to the affinity-tagged form. Inclusion of EDTA into the reaction reduced the side reaction but also greatly reduced the conversion efficiency of one of the phosphoserine residues of ovalbumin, suggesting a role for trace metal ions in the beta-elimination chemistry. Despite the presence of the side reaction, the affinity strategy was shown to be effective at enriching phosphopeptides from fairly complex peptide mixtures. The strategy was applied to the analysis of in vitro phosphorylation of bovine synapsin I by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, resulting in the identification of four phosphorylation sites, two of which have not been previously reported.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Chromatography, Affinity / methods
  • Disulfides / chemistry
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Peptides / analysis
  • Peptides / chemistry
  • Phosphopeptides / analysis
  • Phosphopeptides / chemistry*
  • Phosphopeptides / isolation & purification*
  • Phosphoserine / analysis
  • Phosphoserine / chemistry
  • Phosphoserine / isolation & purification
  • Phosphothreonine / analysis
  • Phosphothreonine / chemistry
  • Phosphothreonine / isolation & purification
  • Proteins / analysis
  • Proteins / chemistry


  • Disulfides
  • Peptides
  • Phosphopeptides
  • Proteins
  • Phosphothreonine
  • Phosphoserine