Candidate genes for testicular cancer evaluated by in situ protein expression analyses on tissue microarrays

Neoplasia. Sep-Oct 2003;5(5):397-404. doi: 10.1016/s1476-5586(03)80042-8.


By the use of high-throughput molecular technologies, the number of genes and proteins potentially relevant to testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) and other diseases will increase rapidly. In a recent transcriptional profiling, we demonstrated the overexpression of GRB7 and JUP in TGCTs, and confirmed the reported overexpression of CCND2. We also have recent evidences for frequent genetic alterations of FHIT and epigenetic alterations of MGMT. To evaluate whether the expression of these genes is related to any clinicopathological variables, we constructed a tissue microarray with 510 testicular tissue cores from 279 patients diagnosed with TGCT, covering various histological subgroups and clinical stages. By immunohistochemistry, we found that JUP, GRB7, and CCND2 proteins were rarely present in normal testis, but frequently expressed at high levels in TGCT. Additionally, all premalignant intrabular germ cell neoplasias were JUP-immunopositive. MGMT and FHIT were expressed by normal testicular tissues, but at significantly lower frequencies in TGCT. Except for CCND2, the expressions of all markers were significantly associated with various TGCT subtypes. In summary, we have developed a high-throughput tool for the evaluation of TGCT markers, and utilized this to validate five candidate genes whose protein expressions were indeed deregulated in TGCT.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods*
  • Testicular Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Testis / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor