Role stress has always been a concern for nurses and health care administrators. Most research, however, on role stress in nurses has taken place in Western cultures. Limited research in the area has taken place in Asian cultures and particularly in the country of Japan. Since the role of the hospital nurse in Japan is vastly different from the role of the hospital nurse in Western cultures and select Asian cultures, it is unclear what part workplace stressors, coping mechanisms and demographic characteristics play in the physical and mental health of Japanese hospital nurses. Therefore, this study chose to examine, in Japanese hospital nurses: (a) the relationships among various workplace stressors, ways of coping, demographic characteristics, and physical and mental health; and (b) which workplace stressors, coping mechanisms and demographic characteristics were the best predictors of both physical and mental health. Data were obtained from 310 nurses who completed four questionnaires. Numerous significant correlations were found among the variables. Workload and number of people living in the household were found to be the best predictors of physical health. The best predictors of mental health were likelihood to leave the current nursing position, lack of support in the workplace, and escape-avoidance coping.