Four multiparous lactating cows (175 to 220 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to assess the effects of four doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 microg/kg of body weight) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Escherichia coli 0111:B4) on circulating concentrations of macrominerals and vitamin D metabolites. Treatments were dissolved in 100 ml of sterile saline and infused intravenously over a period of 100 min. Blood was sampled immediately before infusion (0 h), at 60-min intervals for 8 h, and at 24 and 48 h postinfusion. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed in samples collected at 0, 2, 6, 24, and 48 h only. Serum Ca and P concentrations decreased after LPS infusion, but there was no effect on serum magnesium concentration. Plasma 25-OH vitamin D3 and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 were not affected by LPS infusion; however, when analyzed as 0 vs. all other doses of LPS combined, there was a tendency for plasma 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 concentration to decrease when cows were infused with LPS. The inflammatory response elicited by LPS altered plasma macromineral concentrations, a result that may have important implications for calcium homeostasis and metabolic health of lactating dairy cows.