We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and other proteomic approaches to identify proteins expressed in suspension-cultured rice cells in response to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Proteins were extracted from suspension-cultured cells at 24 and 48 h after rice blast fungus inoculation or treatment with elicitor or other signal molecules such as jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid, and H(2)O(2). The proteins were then polyethylene glycol fractionated before separation by 2-DE. Fourteen protein spots were induced or increased by the treatments, which we analyzed by N-terminal or internal amino acid sequencing. Twelve proteins from six different genes were identified. Rice pathogen-related protein class 10 (OsPR-10), isoflavone reductase like protein, beta-glucosidase, and putative receptor-like protein kinase were among those induced by rice blast fungus; these have not previously been reported in suspension-cultured rice cells. Six isoforms of probenazole-inducible protein (PBZ1) and two isoforms of salt-induced protein (SalT) that responded to blast fungus, elicitor, and JA were also resolved on a 2-DE gel and identified by proteome analysis. The expression level of these induced proteins both in suspension-cultured cells and in leaves of whole plants was analyzed by Western blot. PBZ1, OsPR-10, and SalT proteins from incompatible reactions were induced earlier and to a greater extent than those in compatible reactions. Proteome analysis can thus distinguish differences in the timing and amount of protein expression induced by pathogens and other signal molecules in incompatible and compatible interactions.