Endoscopic treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD): a systematic review

Dig Liver Dis. 2003 Nov;35(11):818-38. doi: 10.1016/s1590-8658(03)00449-3.


Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease represents an extremely common disorder which has a substantial impact on patients' quality of life and use of health care resources. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a chronic relapsing disease for which a lifelong solution is needed. Until now the two competing therapeutic modalities have been the medical and surgical therapies. Quite recently a third option has become available. A number of endoscopic anti-reflux procedures have been described, with the common goal of creating an anti-reflux barrier, thus obviating long-term proton pump inhibitors and the cost and potential risk of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. In this review the different techniques are thoroughly examined and the results are critically evaluated, giving special emphasis to efficacy, safety and durability of these new anti-reflux procedures. Available data show that these anti-reflux techniques produce significant improvement in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptomatology and quality of life as well as reduce the use of anti-reflux medication, without causing serious morbidity or mortality. However, the majority of these techniques have failed to adequately control oesophageal acid reflux. Endoscopic anti-reflux therapies therefore sound very attractive-being less invasive than surgery-and show a significant promise, but are still in the early stages of assessment. Large-scale randomized multi-centre trials comparing control groups with sham procedures are essential to confirm their efficacy. Further studies are also necessary to determine what modifications these techniques require in order to produce maximum clinical efficacy and durability. However, considering that current therapies (both medical and surgical) of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are highly effective, the need for such new endoscopic modalities may be questionable. Moreover, appropriate trials in dedicated centres should be carried out to assure that the enthusiasm commonly associated with new technology is justified and can be generalized to open-access endoscopists.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Biocompatible Materials / therapeutic use
  • Endoscopy, Digestive System / adverse effects
  • Endoscopy, Digestive System / methods*
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate / therapeutic use
  • Patient Selection
  • Polymethyl Methacrylate / therapeutic use
  • Polyvinyls / therapeutic use
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Suture Techniques


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Polyvinyls
  • Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate
  • Polymethyl Methacrylate