The incidence of endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer in Japan has been increasing in recent years. Results of epidemiologic studies suggest that the onset and multiplication of these cancers are associated with estrogen. Estrogens are metabolized by cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and converted into catecholestrogens, which are carcinogens. CYP1A1 has several polymorphisms, the major one being T6235C transition in the non-coding 3'-flanking region (MspI polymorphism), and another being A4889G transition in exon 7 (Ile/Val polymorphism). These polymorphisms can affect the metabolites of estrogens and contribute to the susceptibility to gynecological malignancy. In this study, to determine whether CYP1A1 polymorphism plays a role in the development of gynecological malignancy in the Japanese population, we assessed the association of CYP1A1 polymorphism in Japanese patients with gynecological malignancy in comparison to that in controls. The odds ratios (ORs) of Ile/Val polymorphism were 1.16 in ovarian cancer patients and 1.70 in endometrial cancer patients. The ORs of MspI polymorphism were 1.33 in ovarian cancer patients and 0.88 in endometrial cancer patients. No significant association was found between these CYP1A1 polymorphisms and gynecological malignancy. Although the frequency of CYP1A1 polymorphism in the Japanese population is higher than that in the Caucasian population, CYP1A1 polymorphism is not related to gynecological malignancies in Japanese population.