Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism DD genotype on high-frequency heart rate variability in African Americans

Am J Cardiol. 2003 Dec 15;92(12):1487-90. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.08.069.


Seventy-nine African-American participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) pilot study were genotyped for the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and had spectral power of their high-frequency (HF) heart rate variability (HRV) determined by fast-Fourier transformation. HF HRV was highest in II, intermediate in ID, and lowest in DD (II vs DD, p <0.043) genotypes, thus making an association of the ACE I/D DD genotype with decreased HF HRV that is consistent with the hypothesis that the DD genotype confers susceptibility to increased cardiovascular risk. The urban African-American population we studied had a particularly high cardiovascular risk, and these findings suggest that ACE I/D genotypes may modify that risk.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • African Americans / genetics*
  • Age Factors
  • Female
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Genotype
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Heart Rate / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / genetics*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A