Animal studies have shown that descending pathways from the frontal cortex modulate dopamine (DA) release in the striatum. This modulation is thought to be relevant to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. In human, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can result in functional changes in the cortex. The present study intended to clarify the effects of acute rTMS treatment using various stimulation intensities on the extracellular DA concentrations in the rat dorsolateral striatum. The frontal brain of each rat received acute rTMS treatment, which consisted of 500 stimuli from 20 trains in a day. Each train was applied at 25 Hz for 1 s with 1-min intervals between trains. The neurochemical effects of acute rTMS treatment were investigated by determining the extracellular concentrations of DA in the rat dorsolateral striatum using in vivo microdialysis. Acute rTMS treatment of the frontal brain using the stimulation intensity of almost 110% motor threshold (MT) markedly and continuously increased the extracellular DA concentrations in the rat dorsolateral striatum. The present study demonstrates that acute rTMS treatment of the frontal brain affects the DAergic neuronal system in the rat dorsolateral striatum, and may have therapeutic implications for Parkinson's disease.