[Controversies in neonatal resuscitation]

J Pediatr (Rio J). 2001 Jul:77 Suppl 1:S41-52. doi: 10.2223/jped.218.
[Article in Portuguese]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the main controversies surrounding newborn resuscitation procedures. SOURCES: Systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library, and of abstracts published in Pediatric Research, using the keywords resuscitation, asphyxia neonatorum, and newborn infant. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The effectiveness of hypothermia and ambient air ventilation has been under study. The reduction of barotrauma and volutrauma in the ventilation of preterm infants is still a challenge. The indication of endotracheal intubation in preterm infants based only on their extremely low weight is not a general agreement, except if the use of exogenous surfactant is required. There is still some uncertainty about the ideal dosage of intravenous or endotracheal adrenaline and the need of sodium bicarbonate, mainly in preterm infants. The ethical dilemma includes the decision on whether or not resuscitation should be used in circumstances related to gestational age, birth weight and severe congenital anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: Only the results obtained through animal experiments and randomized controlled clinical trials, with a follow-up of the development of newborn infants submitted to certain resuscitation procedures, will allow changing currently used therapies.